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Saturday, 7 March 2015

The Mad Minute Myth

Mad Minute Myth

These notes are the result of of my research into the Mad Minute; this was prompted by this video on Youtube in which the poster, USMarineRifleman0311,  claims that the record of 38 rounds fired in one minute by a Sergeant Snoxall is a myth, in that the accuracy claimed is incompatible with the rate of fire.

  Although one would expect the accuracy achieved by a firer to reduce with an increase in the rate of fire, the question is whether t the 37 or 38 hits claimed in the Mad Minute practice is plausible, whether it is within human abilities, or whether it is an impossible fabrication, as USMarineRifleman0311 and others claim,.  


The ‘Mad Minute’ was Practice number 22, Rapid Fire, detailed on page 252  of ‘The Musketry Regulations, Part I, 1909 (reprinted with amendments 1912)’. This gives the details as 15 rounds rapid fire, aimed at a “2nd Class Figure” target at 300 yards. The practice is described as ; “Lying. Rifle to be loaded and 4 rounds in the magazine before the target appears. Loading to be from the pouch or bandolier by 5 rounds afterwards. One minute allowed”.

In the 1914 reprint, this practice was changed to “Lying. Rifle unloaded and magazine empty until the target appears. Loading from the pouch or bandolier by 5 rounds afterwards. One minute allowed.”

  The Musketry Regulations were a 312 page handbook on the service rifle, marksmanship principles and training.   You can download a copy of the booklet here; some of the scanned text is difficult to read.

  There is no contemporary source that states that Practice number 22 was colloquially known as the ‘Mad Minute’, but the essential elements (15 rounds, one minute) are present. It is unlikely that  the instructors at the School of Musketry would have demonstrated a practice that was not amongst the many listed in the manual.

The dimensions of the Second Class Figure Target are given on Plate 36 of ‘The Musketry Regulations, Part  II, Rifle Ranges and Musketry Appliances, 1910”. The target was 4 feet square, with 24” and 36” circles.  The aiming mark was a 12” x 12” silhouette representation of the head of a firer aiming a rifle from a trench.

There was no 12" bullseye.

The 15 rounds in one minute was the standard required for a rifleman to qualify for additional pay as a first class shot. An experienced rifleman could fire many more rounds in a minute. 

Rounds hitting within the 36” diameter circle at 300 yards range would be fired to an accuracy of 11.46 minutes of angle (MOA). 

  Getting all the rounds within the 24” inner circle, as credited to Sgt Snoxall, would be an accuracy of 7.64 MOA.

There is an MOA calculator here.

 The only known reference to the record of 38 rounds fired by Sgt Instructor Snoxall is contained in a footnote to page 57 of "Superiority of Fire" by Major C. H. B. Pridham, published by Hutchinson's Scientific and Technical Publications, London (1945). 

"Sgt-Major Wallingford's original Hythe record of 36 rounds in 60 seconds with the SMLE rifle stood until about 1914; when Sgt-Instructor Snoxall fired 38 rounds in one minute, at 300 yards with all his shots in the inner ring. This probably stands as a world's record for a hand loaded rifle. In each case the target used was a 4 ft figure target with a 12 inch figure 5. Lower half of the target was coloured green or brown, upper half grey or green. The bull's eye figure was coloured brown. Since 1925 CSM Instructor C Mapp on numerous occasions has fired 35 and 36 rounds in one minute with all his shots in the inner ring at 300 yards range".

Pridham had been an instructor at Hythe before WW1. The 'inner ring' mentioned was 24 inches in diameter; the "12 inch figure 5" was the 12 inch x 12 inch silhouette aiming mark. There was no 12 inch bulls-eye; this was an error in Ian Hogg's book  ‘The Encyclopedia of Weaponry’ which has since become a firmly established internet myth.

 Those who argue that the 38 rounds per minute was a myth often suggest that the claim was WW1 British propaganda. This seems unlikely, given that the only known reference to Sergeant Snoxall was published in 1945, after WW1 and WW2 had ended and near the end of the service life of the Lee-Enfield rifles with the British armed forces. It seems to me more likely that Pridham had known Snoxall, Mapp and, possibly, Wallingford. 


The video that was used to try to bust the Mad Minute 'Myth' is a Norwegian National Rifle Association field shooting contest known as Stangskyting (Stang shooting).

 Stangskyting was introduced by a Colonel Georg Stang in 1912. The contest is partially funded by the Norwegian defence ministry and is screened on Norwegian national television. The contest is fired using historic and current service rifles (Mausers, Krag-Jorgensens, H&K G3) and also the Sauer 200 STR (Scandinavian Target Rifle).

  There are many similarities between Stangskyting and the Mad Minute practice, probably because both were intended to develop the skills of accurate and rapid firing that would be required to counter the same threat, advancing German infantry formations. Videos of modern-day Stangskyting are the best means available to assess the plausibility of the Mad Minute claims, since they are a rapid-fire contest  using bolt-action rifles which mostly date from the pre-WW1 era.

  In Stangskyting there are two separate sequences in which the shooters fire at a target for 25 seconds. The first target (called a 1/4)  is a diagrammatic representation of a prone figure, the second (called a småen) is a representation of a human head.

  The 1/4 target is 33 cm high by 49 cm wide and is used at a range of 200 to 250 metres.

 The småen target is 30 cm high by 25 cm wide and is used at a range of 130 to 170 metres.

 USMarineRifleman0311 states that the småen target is “approx 20in by 30in”  (76.2cm high by 50.8cm wide); he has got that wrong as well.


The comparison below (between Mad Minute scores of 36-38 rounds and modern Stangskyting shooting) was intended to assess whether the rates of fire and accuracy achieved in the Mad Minute scores were realistic.

This comparison was rendered redundant by a Mad Minute Challenge, held at a shooting club at Sokendal in Norway on 30th May 2015. The winner, Thomas Heøgåsseter, scored 36 hits on a 40 cm diameter target at 200 metres (6.9 MOA/ 2 mils). The average score of 11 shooters was 29.

 Mr Heøgåsseter's achievement has proved definitively that the Mad Minute scores attributed to Snoxall,  Wallingford or Mapp are entirely plausible. I have left the comparison text below as a matter of interest. 


In this video, Krag vs Mauser vs Sauer vs (a)g3, between 2:50 and 3:20 and Mr Mauser fired 14 rounds in 25 seconds (average 33.6 rpm). However, if you deduct the 6 seconds that it took him to clear the stoppage, then he fired 14 rounds in 19 seconds, an average rate of fire of 44.2 rounds per minute.

My best estimate is that he took 2 seconds to load each 5 round charger, firing 14 rounds in the 15 seconds of actual shooting time or about 0.933 seconds per round.

IF he could sustain this RoF for 60 seconds, THEN he would fire the initial 5 rounds in 4.66 seconds, and each of the 8 subsequent 5 round clips in 6.66 seconds, total 58 seconds.  45 rounds fired.

In the same video, between and 4:25, Mr Sauer fires 16 rounds in 25 seconds (he started with a round in the chamber and 5 in the magazine), roughly equivalent to 38 rounds per minute. The rate of fire of the Mauser shooter is more relevant since his rifle is of the correct era and uses faster charger reloading.

The precise rate of fire is unimportant; the only relevant point is that Mr Mauser could plausibly achieve a rate of fire in the region of 40 rpm. The 38 rpm (Snoxall) or 37 rpm (Wallingford) claimed in respect of the Mad Minute by School of Musketry instructors is entirely plausible. The bolt-action of the Short, Magazine, Lee Enfield (SMLE) British service rifle was generally acknowledged to be faster than any of the other bolt-action rifles in service with European armed forces.  


The Mad Minute  rate of fire seems possible, but the question remains as to whether the firer could maintain sufficient accuracy at this speed.

I estimated Mr Mauser’s group size (by scaling the measurements from a screen print) was 43.6 cm wide. If you assume the range to be 150m, then that group was fired within 10 minutes of angle. The group excludes 2 shots that missed the target. Mr Sauer’s group size of 33.2 cm is relevant, an impressive accuracy of 7.61 MOA, again assuming a range of 150 metres.

 Again, both the 11.46 MOA accuracy (Wallingford) or 7.64 MOA (Snoxall) claimed for the Mad Minute seem plausible.

  The standards for both accuracy AND the rate of fire attributed to pre-WW1 School of Musketry staff are comparable with the standards that are achieved by the top competitors in Stangskyting events. This does not prove that the 38 or 37 rpm records are genuine; it does suggest that these scores are within human abilities and therefore plausible.

  You can interpret the above information in any way you please.

 The points supporting Snoxall’s, or Wallingford's, records are that;
·           The SMLE action was faster than any contemporary bolt-action rifle.
 ·          Snoxall, Wallingford and the other School of Musketry instructors were not merely good marksmen, such as those that compete in the Stangskyting events. They were professional shooting instructors, responsible for training the unit instructors, they trained with free-issue ammunition and they were selected from an army of trained marksmen.
·      There were no formal records of the Mad Minute scores maintained, since it was not a formal shooting contest. It was merely an exercise that was intended to develop shooting that was both rapid and accurate. It was an informal contest,  carried on at  company and battalion level and did not involve competitors travelling to national events at Bisley or similar ranges.
·     Wallingford and other members of the Hythe School of Musketry staff did compete in Bisley contests and were regular winners of the Gold, Silver and Bronze Jewel competitions.  

  Sergeant Snoxall seems to have vanished from the records, leaving no other trace of his existence. This is not surprising since many of the personnel records for the WW1 armed forces were destroyed by Luftwaffe bombing during the blitz of WW2. Anyone that has tried to trace the service records of a relative who had served during WW1 will know that the records are incomplete.

    Jesse Wallingford, unlike the good Sergeant Snoxall, left many records of his existence. He competed in rifle and pistol events in the 1908 Olympic Games and won the Gold Jewel (Best Shot in the Army) at Bisley on 5 occasions. Jesse Wallingford, and his remarkable achievements, was most certainly real.